• First aid guide on most common 25 topics:
• Broken bones
- Electrical injuries
• Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
• Foreign body in the ear
• Foreign body in the eye
• Foreign body in the nose
• Foreign body in the skin
• Foreign body inhaled
• Foreign body swallowed
• Food poisoning
• Head injury
• Heat stroke
• Human bites
• Minor wounds
• Nose bleeds
• Sun burn
First aid is the initial assistance or treatment given to a casualty for any injury or sudden illness.
- To preserve life
- To promote recovery
- To prevent further injury and deterioration of the condition
- To make the victim as comfortable as possible.
I. First aid for Anaphylaxis:
A severe allergic reaction can be life threatening as it can lead to shock and respiratory distress. You may feel itching, redness, swelling of your eyes or lips, dizziness, mental confusion, abdominal cramping, nausea, vomiting or diarrhea may also follow. Seek emergency medical attention immediately if you see someone with severe anaphylaxis.
1. Call 777
2. Have the person lie still on his/her back with feet higher than the head.
3. Loosen the tight clothing and cover the person with a blanket.
4. If there are no signs of breathing and circulation, begin CPR.
II. First aid for Bleeding:
1. Remove clothing to expose the wound and press firmly over it with your hand or fingers, preferably over a clean dressing pad.
2. Maintaining the pressure, raise and support the injured part.
3. Bandage the pad firmly in place, but not so tightly that you cut off the blood supply to the limb.
4. Get appropriate medical help. If bleeding is severe, dial 777 for an ambulance and, keeping the injured part raised and supported, lay the person down on a blanket with her legs raised and supported.
If bleeding strikes through the bandage, secure another dressing over the top.
III. First aid for Broken Bones:
1. Advice the person to keep still. Steady and support the injured part with your hands. Do not move the person unnecessarily.
2. If there is a wound, control any bleeding by pressing on the wound with a clean dressing or pad. Apply soft padding over and around the wound, and bandage the dressing and padding in place.
3. For a broken leg, bandage both legs together at knees and ankles, then above and below the injury.
For an arm, apply a sling and if necessary, tie a bandage around the arm and the body, avoiding the injury.
4. Dial 777 for an ambulance. Raise and support the injured part, if possible. Check the circulation in he hand or foot every 10 minutes.
Do not give the person anything by mouth
IV. First aid for Bruise:
Bruises are caused by internal bleeding that seeps through he tissues to produce discoloration under the skin.
1. Raise and support the injured part in a comfortable position. If you suspect more serious underlying injury, such as sprain or fracture, seek medical advice.
2. Apply a cold compress to he bruise.
V. First aid for Burns:
- Immediately dial 777 and ask for the fire brigade
- Remove casualties from danger if it is safe to do so.
- Do not enter a burning building
- Do not enter a smoke or fume filled room.
• Clothing on fire
- Do not let the person run outdoors.
- Either lay the person down, burning side uppermost, and sprinkle him with water, or wrap him tightly in a coat or rug.
• Electrical Injuries
Do not approach until:
- you have switched off a domestic current
- you have been officially informed that a high voltage current has been switched off and isolated.
• Chemical Spills
- Protect yourself from corrosive chemicals
VI. Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR):
CPR is a life saving technique, when someone’s breathing or heart beat has stopped.
To give mouth to mouth ventilations in combination with chest compressions to keep the flow of oxygenated blood to the brain and other vital organs until more definitive medical treatment can restore a normal heart rhythm.
Steps of CPR:
? Look for any danger and remove if there is any danger.
? Check the response of the person by gently shaking his shoulder and shouting “Are you okay?”.
? If there is no response call 777 or have someone else do it. (if you are alone and the victim is as infant or a child age 1-8 years who needs CPR, perform two minutes of CPR before calling for help.
1. Put the person on his/her back on a firm surface
2. Kneel beside the person
3. Open the airway using head tilt and chin lift method – put your palm on the person’s forehead and gently push down. Then with the other hand, gently lift the chin forward to open the airway.
4. Look, listen and feel for breathing for 10 seconds. Look for chest movements, listen for breath sounds, and feel for the person’s breath on your cheek and ear. If no breathing, begin mouth to mouth breathing.
It can be mouth to mouth breathing or mouth to nose breathing, if the mouth is seriously injured or cannot be opened.
1. With the airway open (using the head tilt –chin lift, pinch the nostrils and cover the person’s mouth with your mouth and make seal.
2. Give 2 rescue breaths – watch to see if the chest rises. Allow time for exhalation after each ventilation.
3. Check the carotid pulse on the side of the neck for 10 seconds. If no pulse, begin chest compressions.
1. Place the heel of one hand over the center of the person’s chest, between the nipples. Place your other hand on top of the first hand and interlace. Keep your elbows straight and position your shoulders directly above your hands.
2. Use your upper body weight (not just your arms) as you push straight down on the chest 1 ½ to 2 inches. Push hard and push fast – give about 80-100 per minute.
3. After 15 compressions, give 2 rescue breaths after opening the airway, by head tilt – chin lift method.
4. Continue the compression and ventilations at 15:2 ratio for 4 cycles and then re-assess the client.
5. Continue CPR until there are signs of movement or until emergency medical personnel take over or you are exhausted.
• CPR for a Child
It is essentially the same as for adult for a child ages 1-8 years, except:
- Do CPR for 2 minutes before calling 777, unless someone else can call while you attend to the child.
- Use only one hand to perform heart compressions.
- Breathe more gently.
- Ratio of compressions and ventilation is 5:1
- Continue for 10 cycles before reassessment. Continue until the victim moves or help arrives or you are exhausted.
• CPR on a baby
Initial steps are the same as child except;
Do not over extend the neck, as it will obstruct the airway.
1. Cover the baby’s mouth and nose with your mouth.
2. Deliver only gentle puffs of air
3. Check the brachial pulse for 10 seconds, if absent give cardiac compressions as below.
1. Imagine a horizontal line between the baby’s nipples. Place two fingers of one finger width below this line, in the center of the chest.
2. Gently compress at a rate of at least 100 per minute.
3. The ratio of compressions and ventilations is 5:1
4. Continue CPR until you see signs of life or until help arrive or you become exhausted.
Related Topic: First Aid on choking
VII. First Aid for Choking
Choking is due to a foreign body obstructing the throat or wind pipe, blocking the flow of air.
The universal sign for choking is hands clutched to the throat. Other symptoms can be, inability to talk, difficulty of breathing or noisy breathing, inability to cough forcefully, skin lips and nails turning blue or loss of consciousness.
Heimlich maneuver is used to relieve choking.
To perform the Heimlich maneuver on someone else:
1. Stand behind the person. Wrap your arms around the waist. Have the person bend slightly forward.
2. Make a fist with one hand. Position it slightly above the person’s navel.
3. Grasp the fist with the other hand. Press hard into the abdomen with a quick, upward thrust.
4. Repeat until the blockage is dislodged.
To perform the Heimlich maneuver on yourself:
1. Place a fist slightly above your navel
2. Grasp your fist with he other hand and bend over a hard surface – a chair will do.
3. Shove your fist inward and upward.
Clearing the airway of a pregnant woman or obese person:
1. Position your hands in the middle of the breast bone.
2. Keeping the hands as before, press hard into the chest with a quick thrust.
3. Repeat until the food or other blockage is dislodged or the person becomes unconscious.
Clearing the airway of an unconscious person:
1. Put the person flat on his back on a hard surface.
2. Check the mouth, if the foreign body is visible, reach a finger into the mouth and sweep the foreign body out. If not visible, do not do a finger sweep.
3. Check first whether he can now breathe. If not turn him on his side and give 4-5 blows between her shoulder blades.
4. If back blows fail, kneel aside the person and perform abdominal thrusts.
5. If he starts to breathe normally, call an ambulance to take him to he hospital.
6. If he does not start to breathe again, dial 777 for an ambulance and begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).
First aid for choking for a small child:
1. Put the child over your lap, head down, and slap him repeatedly between the shoulder blades. Use less force than you would for an adult.
2. If back blows fail, begin artificial ventilation.
First aid for choking for a small baby younger than age 1:
1. Assume a seated position and hold the infant face down on your forearm, which is resting on your thigh.
2. Slap gently and firmly between the shoulder blades using the heel of your hand five times.
3. If this doesn’t work, hold the infant face up on your forearm with the head lower than the trunk. Using two fingers placed at the center of the infant’s breastbone, give five quick chest compressions.
4. If breathing doesn’t resume, repeat the back blows and chest thrusts. Call for emergency medical help (777).
5. If one of these techniques opens the airway, but the infant doesn’t resume breathing, begin infant CPR.
VIII. First Aid for Convulsions (Seizures)
- High fever in children (most common from 6 months to four years)
- Brain injury, tumor or stroke
- Electric shock
- Heat stroke
- Reactions or overdoses of medicines or drugs
- Sometimes the reason is not known.
Febrile convulsion (fever fit):
1. Lower the person’s temperature as soon as possible.
- Sponge the body with lukewarm water
- Do not use rubbing alcohol
- Do not use ice because it drops the temperature too fast.
- Give the fever medicine as prescribed
- Dress him in a light weight cloth.
Convulsive seizures (due to other causes):
- Stay calm
- Protect the victim from injury
- Move sharp objects out of the way.
- Loosen tight clothes around the neck.
- Place the person on his/her side.
- Clear the mouth of vomit if there is any.
- Do not try to hold the victim down.
- Do not put a spoon or anything into the mouth.
- Do not give anything to eat or drink.
- Do not give medication.
- Do not throw water on the victim’s face.
- Note how many minutes the seizure(s) lasts so that you can tell the doctor.
- Offer to help the victim when the seizure is over.
- Call 777 for ambulance to go to see a doctor.
IX. First Aid for Fainting:
A faint or a syncope is a brief loss of consciousness caused by a temporary reduction of blood flow to the brain.
1. Lay the person down, and raise and support her legs.
2. Make sure she has plenty of fresh air, open a window if necessary.
3. As she recovers, reassure her and help her sit up gradually.
4. Look for and treat any injury sustained through falling.
5. If she does not regain consciousness, quickly check breathing and pulse, and be prepared to resuscitate if necessary. Dial 777 for an ambulance.
6. If she starts to feel faint again, place her head between knees and tell her to take deep breaths.
X. First Aid for Foreign Body in the Ear:
It can cause pain and hearing loss.
1. Do not attempt to remove the foreign body by probing with a cotton swab. It can cause injury to the middle ear.
2. If the object is clearly visible, gently remove it if easy.
3. Try using gravity, tilt the head to the affected side and shake the head gently to dislodge the object.
4. If these methods fail, seek medical assistance as soon as possible.
XI. First aid for Foreign Body in the Eye:
Try to flush it out with clean water or saline solution.
Seek emergency medical assistance when:
- You cannot remove the object
- The object is imbedded in the eyeball
- The person with the object in the eye is experiencing abnormal vision.
- Pain, redness or the sensation of a foreign body in the eye persist after the object is removed.
XII. First Aid for Foreign Body in the Nose:
1. Don’t probe at the object with a cotton swab or other tool.
2. Don’t try to inhale the object by forcefully breathing in. Instead breathe through your mouth until the object is removed.
3. Blow your nose gently to try to free the object, but don’t blow hard or repeatedly.
4. If the object is visible and you can easily grasp it with tweezers, gently remove it. If not visible or easily grasped do not try to remove it.
5. Seek emergency medical help if these methods fail.
XIII. First Aid for Foreign Body in the Skin:
If the object is embedded in your skin, clean the area well with soap and water. If it is not coming out easily, seek medical help.
XIV. First Aid for Foreign Body Inhaled:
If you or your child inhales a foreign body, seek emergency medical help. If the inhaled object causes choking:
- Use Heimlich maneuver to try to remove the object (see First Aid for Choking)
- Call 777 for ambulance
XV. First Aid for Foreign Body Swallowed:
Seek emergency medical help as early as possible.
If a swallowed object blocks the airway:
- Use Heimlich maneuver to try to remove the object if the person is having trouble breathing (see First Aid for Choking)
- Call 777 for an ambulance
XVI. First Aid for Food Poisoning:
This maybe caused by eating food that is contaminated, either by bacteria or by toxins produced by bacteria that were present in the food at some stage.
There may be:
- Nausea and vomiting
- Cramping abdominal pains
- Features of shock
1. Help the person to lie down and rest
2. Call a doctor
3. Give the person plenty to drink
If the person’s condition worsen, call777 for an ambulance
XVII. First Aid for Head Injury:
If it is minor, visit the emergency room to be seen by a doctor.
Call 777 for an ambulance if the following signs are present.
- Severe head or facial bleeding
- Change in level of consciousness for more than a few seconds
- Black and blue discoloration below the eyes or behind the ears.
- Cessation of breathing
- Loss of balance
- Weakness or an inability to use an arm or leg
- Unequal pupil size
- Repeated vomiting
- Slurred speech
If severe head trauma occurs:
1. Keep the person still until the medical help arrives.
2. Stop any bleeding by applying firm pressure to the wound with a clean padded towel or a sterile gauze.
3. Watch for changes in breathing and alertness. If the person shows no breathing or no circulation, begin CPR.
XVIII. First Aid for Heat Stroke:
Heat stroke is one of the heat related problems that often result from heavy work in hot environments, usually accompanied by inadequate fluid intake. The main sign of heat stroke is a markedly elevated body temperature – generally greater than 40oC – with changes in mental status ranging from personality changes to confusion and coma. Skin may be hot and dry, although in heat stroke caused by exertion, the skin is usually moist.
Other signs and symptoms may include:
- Rapid heart beat
- Rapid and shallow breathing
- Elevated or lowered blood pressure
- Cessation of sweating
- Irritability, confusion or unconsciousness
- Fainting, which may be the first sign in older adults
If you suspect heat stroke:
- Move the person out of the sun and into a shady or air conditioned space
- Call 777 for ambulance
- Cool the person by covering him/her with damp sheets or by spraying with cool water. Direct air onto the person with a fan or newspaper.
XIX. First Aid for Human Bites:
Human bites can be as dangerous as or even more dangerous than animal bites because of the types of bacteria and viruses contained in the human mouth.
If you sustain a human bite that breaks the skin:
1. Stop the bleeding by applying pressure
2. Wash the wound thoroughly with soap and water.
3. Apply an antibiotic cream to prevent infection
4. Apply a clean bandage. If the bite is bleeding, apply pressure directly on the wound using a sterile bandage or clean cloth until the bleeding stops.
5. Seek emergency medical care.
XX. First Aid for Hyperventilation:
Hyperventilation means breathing faster than normal.
Signs and Symptoms:
- Fast breathing
- Increased heart beating
- Arms, legs and mouth tingle and may feel numb
- Visual changes
- A feeling of impending doom
- Sometimes loss of consciousness
Causes of hyperventilation:
- Anxiety (the most common cause)
- Severe stomach pains
- Heart or lung disease
- Extensive physical injuries
- Panic attacks
- Disorders of the central nervous systems
Breathing into a paper bag increases the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood and relieves the symptoms.
1. Loosely cover your nose and mouth with a small paper bag.
2. Breathe slowly into the bag and re-breathe the air in the bag about 10 times.
3. Set the bag aside and breathe normally for a couple of minutes.
4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 until the symptoms lessen or go away.
5. Try to breathe slowly
6. If you continue to hyperventilate after these measures, seek emergency medical care.
XXI. First Aid for Minor Wounds:
Minor wound usually don’t require a trip to the emergency room.
- Wash your hands thoroughly in soap and warm water.
- If the wound is dirty, clean it by rinsing lightly under running water.
- Pat gently dry with a sterile swab or clean tissue.
- Temporarily cover the wound with sterile gauze. Clean the skin around it with soap water. Swab away from the wound and use a new swab for each stroke.
- Pat dry, then cover the wound with an adhesive dressing, plaster.
- A wound that cuts deeply through the skin or is gaping and has fat or muscle protruding usually requires stitches – seek emergency care as soon as possible. Proper closure within a few hours minimizes the risk of infection.
XXII. First Aid for Nose Bleeds:
1. Advice the person to sit down with his head well forwarded. Do not let his head tip back; blood may run down the back of the throat, which can induce vomiting.
2. Ask him to breathe through his mouth, and to pinch his nose just below the bridge. Help him if necessary.
3. Advice him not to speak, swallow, cough, spit or sniff, as he may disturb blood clots. Give him a clean cloth or tissue to mop up dribble.
4. After 10 minutes, instruct him to release the pressure. If nose is still bleeding, re-apply the pressure for further period of 10 minutes.
5. If the nose bleed persist beyond 30 minutes, take or send him to the hospital in the treatment position.
XXIII. First Aid for Poisoning:
For chemicals on the skin:
1. Wash away any residual chemical on the skin with plenty of water.
2. Use your judgment to call a doctor or dial 777 for an ambulance. Give information about the spilled chemical.
1. Check that the person can breath (clear airway)
2. Do not try to make the person vomit
3. Look for signs of chemical burning in or around the person’s mouth. If there is burning, give him cold water or milk to sip.
4. Call 777 for an ambulance. Try to identify what the person has swallowed and tell the doctor.
5. If the person becomes unconscious, start CPR.
1. Check and, if necessary, clear the airway.
2. Do not try to induce vomiting
3. Use your own judgment to call an ambulance (777) to go to a doctor.
4. Try to identify the plant, and which part of it has been eaten, to tell the doctor.
XXIV. First Aid for Shock:
Shock may result from trauma, heatstroke, allergic reactions, severe infection, poisoning or other causes.
Signs and symptoms:
- The skin is cool and clammy and pale
- The pulse is weak and rapid
- Breathing may be slow and shallow, or hyperventilation may occur.
- Blood pressure is below normal
- The eyes lack luster and may seem to stare
- The person may be conscious or unconscious.
If you suspect shock, even if the person seems normal after an injury:
1. Call 777 for an ambulance
XXV. First Aid for Sun Burn:
Signs and Symptoms:
- Occasional blistering
Because exposure often affects a large area of your skin, sun burn can cause headache, fever and fatigue.
If you have a sun burn:
- Take a cool bath or shower.
- See a doctor
- Leave blisters intact to speed healing and avoid infection.